(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Air Pollution Control Program Annual Report 1998"

Divisions and Programs 



Home Page Site Directory 

Help 







* 






Missouri Department of 

Natural Resou 



Division of Environmental Quality 











Forms and Permits Publications News and Public Notices State Parks 

P.alonrlar 


O site # state 









Air Pollution Control 
Program 

Air Quality Data System 



Air Program Advisory 
Forum 



Commissions and Boards 



Gateway Vehicle 
Inspection Program 

Inspection and 
Maintenance (l/M) 

Permits 

Publications and Reports 



Report an Environmental 
Problem 



Laws and Regulations 



State Plans 



1998 Annual Report 

The Air Pollution Control Program produces an annual report to provide Missouri residents 
information about the status of air quality in the state. The publication is made available here in 
electronic format. The publication is divided into chapters for quicker download. 

Chapter 1 : Introductions and Highlights (05/00) 266 KB 
Chapter 2: Major Pollutants and Standards (05/00) 254 KB 
Chapter 3: Air Quality Monitors in Missouri (05/00) 275 KB 
Chapter 4: Overview of Missouri's Air Quality (05/00) 195 KB 
Chapter 5: Ozone in Missouri (05/00) 541 KB 
Chapter 6: Lead in Missouri (05/00) 118 KB 
Chapter 7: Missouri's Air Pollution Control Program (05/00) 160 KB 
Chapter 8: Missouri Air Conservation Commission (05/00) 177 KB 

Chapter 9: Air Pollution Rules, Regulations and State Implementations Plans (05/00) 119 KB 
Chapter 10: Other Sources of Information (05/00) 113 KB 
Chapter 1 1 : Glossary of Air Pollution Terms (05/00) 12 KB 




Land | Air 



| Water | GIS | 
Kids and Education | 



Energy | State Parks 
Waste and Recycling | 



| Grants and Loans 
Historic Preservation 



Security and Privacy 
Job Opportunities | 



| State Home Page | 
DNR Store | Search 



Site Directory | 

I 




Missouri 
Department of 
Natural Resources 



P.O. Box 176, Jefferson City, MO 65102 
800-361 -4827 / 573-751 -481 7 
E-mail: cleanair@dnr.mo.gov 
Revised on Monday July 05 2010 



Achieving healthy air quality for all Missourians, that's the mission of 
the Missouri Department of Natural Resources' (DNR) Air Pollution 
Control Program (APCP). The work of DNR to meet this goal can only 
be successful when it is part of a total team effort involving citizens, business, 
industry and local governments. 




Local involvement means taking a stand on air quality, being part of the process 
of providing DNR with your input and supporting the regulations and actions 
that you believe in. It involves keeping up with the issues, taking note of 
pollution, reporting unusual emissions or smoke to the Department of Natural 
Resources and speaking up when you feel your right to clean air is being 

violated. It also involves doing your 
part with regular car tune-ups, using 
low solvent products, lowering your 
energy consumption and composting 
yard waste instead of burning it. 

The state of Missouri is responsible 
for protecting the health of its citizens 
with an adequate margin of safety, at 
the same time achieving a consistent 
level of progress that demands 
careful use of our valuable resources. Economic growth should include 
common sense strategies for reducing air pollution and protecting public health 
as industry, manufacturing and service facilities and jobs expand. Missouri's 
economy will not remain robust over the long term unless it functions in an 
environmentally sustainable manner. 




When you learn more about the air around you and claim ownership of it, you 
take a major step toward a healthy life. Air is a natural resource and it belongs 
to all of us. 



a 





4 





As a recipient of federal funds, the Missouri 
Department of Natural Resources does not 
discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, age, 
sex, or disability. Any person who believes he or she has suffered 
discrimination may file a complaint with the Department of Natural 
Resources or with the Office of Equal Opportunity, U.S. Department 
of the Interior, Washington, D.C., 20240. 




998 Air Quality Highlig 



1998 Air 

Quality Highlights 1 

Major Air 

Pollutants 4 

Health Effects 

of Air Pollution 5 

Clean Air 

Standards 6 

National Ambient Air 
Quality Standards 7 

Air Quality 

Monitors in Missouri ....8 
Missouri's 

Air Quality 10 

Ozone in Missouri 12 

Ozone in St. Louis 
Controlling St. Louis Ozone 
Ozone in Kansas City 
Controlling Kansas City Ozone 

Lead in Missouri 18 

About the 

Air Pollution 

Control Program 20 

Missouri Air 
Conservation 
Commission 22 

Air Quality 

Information 25 

Air Pollution 

on the Internet 26 

Glossary 27 



Cooperative 
Development of 
Regulations 

Involving the public in the process of 
making air quality rules helps to 
create fair, effective regulations that 
have broad support. In 1998, DNR 
continued its commitment to public 
participation by convening 
workgroups to help develop air 
regulations. A workgroup brings 
industry and the public together with 
government agencies to share 
concerns and exchange ideas while 
developing regulations. 

The Concentrated Animal Feeding 
Operations Odor Issues Workgroup 
was convened by the Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission to 
examine odor issues related to Class 
1 A operations, the largest size 
classification of concentrated animal 
feeding facilities in the state. The 
workgroup included interested 
parties from industry, environmental 
organizations and regulatory 
agencies. The workgroup met from 
April through June 1998, then made 
recommendations to the commission 
for changes in the rules to amend 
current regulations to reduce odor 
emission from Class IA concentrated 
animal feeding operations. 

The Construction Permit 
Streamlining Workgroup continued 
improving the Construction Permit 
Regulations and reviewing the 
internal procedures and policy for the 
program to review permit 
applications. This workgroup placed 
a major emphasis on improving the 
construction permit application forms 
and instructions. This effort alone 



should save hundreds of hours for 
both applicants and reviewers. 

The St. Louis Fuels Summit was held 
in June to discuss fuel control options 
for the St. Louis ozone nonattainment 
area, including federal Reformulated 
Gasoline (RFG) and several state fuel 
control programs. Summit 
participants included representatives 
from the St. Louis business 
community, the automobile, 
petroleum and agriculture industries, 
environmental and public interest 
organizations, government agencies, 
elected officials and other interested 
parties. The summit also included a 
22-member technical panel of experts 
on gasoline production, distribution, 
usage and regulation as well as air 
quality issues. The summit was 
successful in providing a forum for 
participants to voice their opinions 
and concerns on fuel control and 
alternative gasoline. 

Fuels 

DNR continues to develop ways for 
St. Louis and Kansas City to reduce 
emissions of volatile organic 
compounds (VOCs) that contribute to 
the formation of ground-level ozone 
(urban smog). St. Louis is required to 
reduce VOCs due to its status as an 
ozone nonattainment area, while the 
Kansas City reductions are in 
response to violations of the ozone 
standard in 1995 and 1997. 

In the St. Louis area, recovery of 
gasoline vapors at fuel pumps is one 
of the most effective ways to reduce 
VOC emissions. DNR developed the 
Missouri Performance Evaluation 
Test Procedures (MOPETP), a 
comprehensive set of tests designed 



to determine the efficiency of gasoline 
vapor recovery systems and 
components. In 1998, approximately 
seven manufacturers of gasoline 
dispensing equipment were either 
testing or preparing to participate in 
the MOPETP program. 

DNR also continued the operating 
permit program for gas stations in the 
St. Louis area. The program requires 
vapor recovery equipment to be 
tested to assure it is functioning 
properly. About 956 active gasoline 
stations in the St. Louis ozone 
nonattainment area are subject to the 
operating permit rule. The deadline 
for completing the initial permits was 
January 1, 1999. 

In 1998, a major strategy to reduce 
VOC emissions in Kansas City and St. 
Louis was to use low Reid vapor 
pressure (RVP) gasoline. During 
summer months, low RVP gasoline 
evaporates less than conventional 
gasoline, which reduces emissions of 
VOCs. Low RVP gas was first 
required in St. Louis in 1994 and in 
Kansas City in 1997. Low Reid vapor 
pressure gasoline was used in both 
areas from June 1 to Sept. 15, 1998. 

Following the St. Louis Fuel Summit, 
on July 10, 1998, the governor 
submitted a letter requesting that 
EPA require federal Reformulated 
Gasoline (RFG) for the St. Louis 
ozone nonattainment area starting 
June 1, 1999. Based on this request, 
RFG will replace low Reid vapor 
pressure gasoline as St. Louis' fuel 
control strategy in 1999. RFG is a 
gasoline formula designed to burn 
cleaner than conventional gasoline all 
year round, not just during the 
summer. RFG reduces exhaust 
emissions as well as evaporative 



emissions and is administered and 
enforced by the EPA. 

The revised Kansas City ozone 
maintenance plan, adopted by the 
Missouri Air Conservation 
Commission in February 1998, 
recommends that RFG be sold in the 
Kansas City area starting in 2000. 

Ozone Transport 

Air pollution can spread across 
geographic boundaries. Initiatives 
involving regional cooperation and 
study of air quality are becoming 
more common. In October 1998, the 
U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency (EPA) issued a rule that will 
require Missouri to reduce emissions 
of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which is a 
commonly transported air pollutant 
contributing to ozone formation. In 
1998, DNR began development of 
regulations to comply with EPA's 
regional NOx control plan. These 
regulations will affect utilities, 
cement kilns and other large 
industrial activities. 

Concentrated Animal 
Feeding Operations 
(CAFOs) 

The recent growth of large-scale 
animal feeding operations is 
changing the way animals are raised 
in Missouri. These large-scale 
operations concentrate animals into a 
relatively small area and can produce 
waste amounts equivalent to those 
produced by many small cities. As a 
result they present a number of 
environmental challenges. Since the 
1970s, concentrated animal feeding 
operations have been exempt from air 
pollution regulations. Responding to 
citizen and environmental complaints 
about odors, DNR convened a work 
group of industry, environmental and 



-2- 



regulatory representatives to study 
the largest classification of these 
facilities, Class 1 A CAFOs, for 
possible solutions. The workgroup 
recommended amending the current 
odor regulations to remove the 
exemption presently given to Class 
1A operations. Under the 
recommended amendments, existing 
Class 1 A operations would be 
required to implement a plan to 
reduce odor from their facilities and 
meet an emission limit. All existing 
Class 1 A operations would be 
required to come into full compliance 
with the limit by 2002. New Class 1A 
facilities would be expected to 
prepare an odor control plan before 
beginning operation. DNR will 
monitor these operations over the 
next few years to look at the specific 
chemical compounds they emit. 

Enforcement Actions 
and Results 

DNR's vigilance in the enforcement 
of air law in 1998 resulted in 818 
Notices of Violation (NOVs). 
Settlements were reached in 139 
cases. These settlements resulted in 
paid penalties of $501,900 and 
suspended penalties totaling $188,150. 

Operating Permits 

After being one of the final states 
approved by EPA to run an operating 
permits program, Missouri became 
one of the first states to begin issuing 
operating permits. The APCP's 
operating permits program began 
full-scale operation in August 1997. 
In 1998, the program issued 51 Part 
70 (major), 38 Intermediate permits 
and 46 Basic permits. 

Construction Permits 

Among the 1,012 construction permit 
actions made in 1998, notable major 



level permits were issued for the 
Proctor and Gamble Paper Products 
in Cape Girardeau County, 
Panhandle Eastern Corporation in 
Pettis County and AECI in Nodaway 
County. Issuance of these permits 
involved extensive engineering 
review, publication of legal notices 
and coordinating the availability of 
materials for public review. 

The Small Business 
Compliance Advisory 
Committee 

Section 507 of the 1990 Clean Air Act 
Amendments requires states to 
implement a three-component 
program to assist small businesses in 
complying with the air regulations. 
This is commonly called the small 
business assistance program. The 
three components consist of the small 
business ombudsman, the technical 
assistance function to small 
businesses and the compliance 
advisory panel. In Missouri, the 
compliance advisory panel is known 
as the Small Business Compliance 
Advisory Committee (SBC AC). 

The SBCAC is comprised of seven 
members: Two are appointed by the 
governor, one each is appointed by 
the majority and minority leaders of 
the House and Senate, and one is 
appointed by the director of the 
Department of Natural Resources. 
The SBCAC has the following 
responsibilities: 

• Receive reports of the small 
business ombudsman of the 
governor's office; 

• Evaluate the impact of the Air 
Conservation Law and related rules 
on small business; 

• Review and assess the impact of 
enforcement policies on small 
business operations; 



• Recommend to the Department of 
Natural Resources, the Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission and the 
General Assembly changes in 
procedure, rule or law that would 
facilitate small business compliance 
with the Air Conservation Law; 

• Recommend to the Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission rules for 
expedited review of modifications 
for small business; 

• Conduct hearings, determine facts 
and make investigations consistent 
with the purposes of the small 
business technical assistance 
activity conducted under Section 
643.173 (RSMo). 

Currently there are four individuals 
serving on the SBCAC: Bruce 
Morrison, chairman, St. Louis; Jack 
Lonsinger, vice-chairman, Excelsior 
Springs; Joel Braun, Fenton; and Scott 
Totten of the Missouri Department of 
Natural Resources. The committee 
began meeting in 1998 to become 
familiar with the environmental 
issues that small businesses face. 

The small business technical 
assistance activity is performed in the 
Technical Assistance Program (TAP), 
a non-regulatory service of DNR. 
TAP's business assistance unit carries 
out the activities and provides 
administrative support to the SBCAC. 
TAP's mission is to provide 
information, assistance, education 
and training to business owners, 
farmers, local governments and the 
general public on how to control or 
reduce pollution. For more 
information, you can contact DNR's 
Technical Assistance Program at 
1-800-361-4827 or (573) 526-6627. 



-3- 



Other Air 
Pollutants 

In addition to the six criteria 
pollutants, DNR's Air 
Pollution Control Program 
also regulates other 
pollutants, including 
asbestos and hazardous air 
pollutants (HAPS). 

ASBESTOS: Asbestos is a 
naturally occurring mineral 
that takes the form of hollow 
microscopic fibers. Before it 
was recognized as a 
carcinogen, asbestos was 
widely used for insulation 
and fireproofing. With age, it 
breaks down and becomes a 
hazard to anyone who 
breathes its fibers. Federal 
and state laws regulate the 
removal of asbestos from 
buildings and DNR monitors 
these activities. 

HAZARDOUS AIR 
POLLUTANTS (HAPS): 

Some air pollutants can 
cause quick and painful 
death, cancer, reproductive 
disorders and environmental 
damage such as acid rain. 
The EPA has designated 
these pollutants as 
Hazardous Air Pollutants 
(HAPS), which may present 
a hazard to public health and 
safety when released in 
sufficient quantity. 



ajor Air Pollutant 



The benchmarks for clean air in 
Missouri are the National 
Ambient (outdoor) Air 
Quality Standards (NAAQS) set by 
EPA under the Clean Air Act. The 
standards address six "criteria 
pollutants" considered harmful to 
public health and the environment: 
ozone, lead, inhalable particles, 
carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide 
and sulfur dioxide. These standards 
are found on page 7. 

OZONE (URBAN SMOG): Ground- 
level ozone is a colorless gas, the 
most harmful part of what we 
commonly know as "smog." Ozone 
is not directly emitted. It forms on 
sunny hot summer days when 
sunlight causes a reaction between 
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 
and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Vehicles, 
power plants and industrial boilers 
are common sources of nitrogen 
oxides. Gasoline powered vehicles 
are a major source of VOCs. 

"Good up high - bad nearby" 
There are two types of ozone: 
stratospheric (upper atmosphere) and 
ground-level ozone. Ozone in the 
stratosphere occurs naturally and is 
desirable, shielding the earth from 
ultraviolet rays. However, ozone at 
ground level is a powerful 
respiratory irritant. 

AIRBORNE LEAD: In Missouri, 
airborne lead and its compounds are 
produced mainly by lead smelters. 
Children under six are the most 
endangered by airborne lead, so the 
standard has been set to protect their 
health. In 1985, 73 percent of airborne 
lead came from vehicle exhaust pipes. 
This dropped to 34 percent by 1988 



due to federal controls on gasoline 
that started in the mid-1970s. 

INHALABLE PARTICLES: Inhalable 
particles include airborne dust, 
pollen, soot and aerosol sprays. 
Scientists also sometimes refer to 
these as "particulate matter." Current 
federal standards apply to particles 
less than 10 microns in diameter, or 
PM10, emitted mainly by vehicles, 
industry and farms. Wind and 
rainfall cause seasonal variations in 
PM10. In 1997 EPA set new standards 
for even finer particles, less than 2.5 
microns in diameter, or PM2.5. (see 
page 7) 

CARBON MONOXIDE: Carbon 
monoxide (CO), formed by the 
incomplete combustion of fuel, is one 
of the most common pollutants. 
More than 75 percent of CO 
emissions come from vehicle exhaust 
and the highest concentrations 
are caused by congestion in 
metropolitan areas. Although it is 
deadly, CO is transformed rapidly 
into carbon dioxide. 

NITROGEN DIOXIDE: Almost all 
nitrogen dioxide is man-made. If fuel 
is burned above 1200 degrees 
Fahrenheit, airborne nitrogen forms 
highly reactive nitrogen oxides such 
as nitrogen dioxide. Principal sources 
are power plants, industrial boilers 
and vehicles. 

SULFUR DIOXIDE: Sulfur oxides 
are produced by burning sulfur- 
containing fuels such as coal and oil, 
by smelting metals and by other 
industrial processes. Sulfur dioxide 
(S02) composes about 95 percent of 
these gases. 



- 4 - 




Health Effects of Air Pollution 


Pollutant 


Health Effects 


OZONE 

A colorless gas, ozone is the 
most harmful part of what we 
commonly call "smog/' 


Throat irritation, congestion, chest pains, nausea and labored breathing. 
Aggravation of existing lung or heart conditions, allergies and asthma. 
Ozone is especially harmful to those who work or play outside. Ozone is 
also harmful to plant life, damaging forests and reducing crop yields. 


LEAD 

Dust-like particles ranging from 
light gray to black. 


Low doses damage the central nervous system of fetuses and children, 
causing seizures, mental retardation and behavioral disorders. In children 
and adults lead causes fatigue, disturbed sleep, decreased fitness, and 
damage to kidneys, liver and blood-forming organs. High levels damage 
the nervous system and cause seizures, coma and death. 


INHALABLE PARTICLES 

Abroad class of particles 10 
micrometers or smaller in 
diameter, that may include 
airborne soot, dust, pollen and 
aerosol sprays. 


Increased likelihood of chronic or acute respiratory illness. Difficulty 
breathing, aggravation of existing respiratory or cardiovascular illness and 
lung damage. 


CARBON MONOXIDE 

An odorless, colorless, tasteless, 
poisonous gas. 


Impaired vision and manual dexterity, weakness and mental dullness. At 
high levels: vomiting, fast pulse and breathing, followed by slow pulse and 
breathing, then collapse and unconsciousness. 


NITROGEN DIOXIDE 

A poisonous, reddish-brown 
to dark brown gas with a 
strong odor. 


Lung inflammation and lower resistance to infections like bronchitis and 
pneumonia. Suspected of causing acute respiratory diseases in children. 


SULPHUR DIOXIDE 

A colorless gas with a strong 
suffocating odor. 


Irritation of throat and lungs with difficulty in breathing. Aggravation of 
existing respiratory or cardiovascular illness. 


HAZARDOUS AIR 
POLLUTANTS 

Numerous chemicals classified 
by their hazardous health effects. 


May cause cancer, reproductive disorders and death. 


ASBESTOS 

Densely packed microscopic 
fibers, once used for insulation 
and fireproofing. 


Lung cancer, asbestosis (a progressive irreversible scarring of the lungs) and 
mesothelioma (cancer of the chest cavity's lining). 



- 5 - 




ean Air Standard 



Federal Ozone 


Standard Timeline 


Year 1997 


Data gathering 




begins for EPA 




eight-hour 




standard. 


Year 2000 


EPA assigns area 




designations for 




attainment of 




eight-hour 




standard. One- 




hour standard 




still in effect. 


Year 2003 


Missouri to 




submit new 




State 




Implementation 




Plan (SIP) 




showing 




attainment of 




eight-hour 




standard. 




The Clean Air Act established 
two types of national air 
quality standards. Primary 
standards set limits to protect public 
health, including the health of 
"sensitive" populations such as 
asthmatics, children and the elderly. 
Secondary standards set limits to 
protect public welfare, including 
protection against decreased 
visibility, damage to animals, crops, 
vegetation and buildings. 

New Standards 

EPA established new health-based 
standards for ground-level ozone and 
particulate matter in July 1997. The 
standards were established after 
extensive scientific reviews showed 
that the changes were necessary to 
protect public health and the 
environment. These new standards 
will bring major changes in 
Missouri's approach to achieve 
healthy air quality in the future. 

Ozone 

The new ozone standard will reduce 
allowable concentrations from 0.12 
parts per million averaged over a 
one-hour period to a standard of 0.08 
parts per million averaged over an 
eight-hour period. Federal 
designations of areas that are in 
attainment of the new standards will 
be based on an average of three years 
of the fourth highest annual daily 
maximum eight-hour concentration. 

Fine Particulate Matter 

In revising the air quality standards, 
EPA created new standards for PM2.5 
(fine particulate matter less than 2.5 
microns in diameter). EPA' s scientific 
review concluded that fine particles, 
which penetrate deeply into the 

- 6 - 



lungs, are more damaging to human 
health than the coarse particles 
known as PM10. EPA also modified 
the 24-hour PM10 (fine particulate 
matter less than 10 microns in 
diameter) standard to be based on a 
three-year average of the 99th 
percentile of data. These standards 
are listed in the table on page 7. 

The time schedule for this PM2.5 
standard to be implemented and 
attained will take several years 
because a new monitoring system for 
this type of pollution must be created. 
Based on EPA guidance, Missouri has 
designed a monitoring network of 30 
monitors. The system is required to 
be in operation by the end of 1999. By 
the end of 1998, 19 monitors were 
established and in operation. EPA will 
designate area attainment by 2003 
based on three years of gathered data 
beginning in 2000. 

Air Quality Monitors 
in Missouri 

In 1998, the Missouri Air Pollution 
Monitoring Network included 119 
monitors of three types: national 
monitors, state and local agency 
monitors, and special-purpose 
monitors. National monitors provide 
data on national trends. State and 
local agencies operate other 
permanent monitors. Special-purpose 
monitors are placed for a limited time 
to study small areas or special sites. 
The monitors are placed to gather 
representative data as well as worst- 
case occurrences. There are also 44 
meteorological monitors in operation 
throughout the state. The data 
collected at these monitors are used 
for analysis and modeling purposes. 



National Ambient Air Quality Standards 



Criteria Air 
Pollutant 




Carbon Monoxide 



Nitrogen Dioxide 



Ozone 



Particulate Matter 

(PMio) 



Particulate Matter 

(PM25) 



Sulfur Dioxide 



Averaging Time 




One-hour maximum 3 
Eight-hour maximum 1 




Three-month Arithmetic Mean 



Annual Arithmetic Mean 



One-hour average 3 
Eight-hour average 6 



Annual Arithmetic Mean 
24-hour average f 



Annual Arithmetic Mean g 
24-hour average 11 

24-hour maximum 3 
Annual Arithmetic Mean 
Three-hour maximum 3 




Primary 
Standard 

40 mg/m 3b 
(35 ppm c ) 
10 mg/ m 3 
(9 ppm) 



Secondary 
Standard 




1.5 :g/m3 d 


Same As 
Primary 
Standard 


100 :g/m 3 
(0.05 ppm) 


Same As 
Primary 
Standard 


0.12 ppm 
(zjd .g/m ) 

0.08 ppm 
(157 :g/m 3 ) 


Same As 
1 riiiidry 
Standard 
Same As 
Primary 
Standard 


50 :g/m 3 
150 :g/m 3 


Same As 
Primary 
Standard 


15:g/m 3 
65:g/m 3 


Same As 
Primary 
Standard 


365 :g/m 3 





(0.14 ppm) 
80 :g/m 3 
(0.03 ppm) 



1300 :g/m 3 
(0.5 ppm) 



a Not to be exceeded more than once a year for primary 

and secondary standards, 
b mg/ m 3 = milligrams per cubic meter, 
c ppm = part per million, 
d :g/m 3 = micrograms per cubic meter, 
e Established for a three-year average of the fourth 

highest daily maximum concentration. 



f Established for a three-year average of the 99th 

percentile of data, 
g Established for a three-year average, 
h Established for a three-year average of the 98th 

percentile of data. 



-7- 



BNVIMPmNHi. SERVICE mDCEWW 
SHE NAME 



JuJjud CaaOf IMiaJ 
*L tm 

A«4Ku SfldicT Bvftfl M'-MOH 
AiiK-u SudUf t*HP* 
■'biiLV Sudln Fkiha PUHi 
GLutct ftniJi ■ TuLikl P.-=.i*jacr 
Mlh 3L & WO h ciTir MR 
t*Ji DokLio hi|b i.-w-l 

AjzuU A. AzniU fmlni 
□■Ul [hakim Hip+i frAuoJ 
Erivi M ItaU 

HWV *l W«p. A^.-r. 

CNvhud I-...-. 



Air Quality Monitors in Missouri 



■ 

$4 

w 

09 
ID 
IJ 
II 

u 
id 
in 

IT 
m 

19 

ad 
u 
u 



3T. LOuiS CChiam- MfC 
43 ItHGI 5l Ob Pud. Hd Si AM 



St l Li Cut" ahT 

aj tMi A MuLrt h 

H 3m 3 BtwiU-a.- 4 hk 

3J L122 Onfc A TuJLo- 

37 On ul' Audi 

1b- ' ;Ui & Wmbnpm 

■K" IU !taH i Qn-u 




11 
H 

Z5 

M 

17 
iu 



■Wu. * ^iM^i" WIT 

724 Ttvj* 
IMh 4 Vi 
h-."i«Jr Gsi',- Airpnt 
SLM Dtjmnii M 

li!7 

ilJ» JVstti n hiw 



arm irrt -mame 

4* .WL2 9 Uoujd 
41 ludkn UO ixz 

Jim* Hiv, 



Map by: Air Pollution Control Program 
Missouri Dept, of Natural Resources 



— 8 — 



When printing choose landscape 
mode for paper orientation. 



— 9 — 



Air Quality Trends 
at Selected Locations 

CARBON MONOXIDE 
2nd 8-hr MAX, ppm 

St. Charles Rock Road, St. Ann 1991-98 

10 



Standard = .9 ppm* 



(parts per million)* 




91 92 93 94 95 96 97 9 
Years 

NITROGEN DIOXIDE 
ANNUAL MEAN, ppm 

South Lindbergh, Affton 1991-98 




91 92 93 



95 96 97 98 
Years 



SULFUR DIOXIDE 
2nd 24-hr MAX, ppm 

South Charleston, Springfield 1991-98 



16 



10 



06 



Standard = .14 ppm* 



(parts per million)* 



Trend 



.n 



=5 — m- 



91 92 93 



95 96 97 98 



Years 



PM10 ANNUAL 
MEAN, ppm 

St. Joseph, Missouri 1991-98 



Standard = 50 ug/m 3 * (micro grams per cubic meter)* 



Trend 



i n 




issouri's Air Quali 



m 



Three exceptions to good air 
quality in Missouri are the St. 
Louis area during the summer 
and two spots in east and southeast 
Missouri. The St. Louis area has 
repeatedly exceeded the ozone 
standard and is designated by the 
EPA as a moderate-level 
"nonattainment area" for ozone. This 
area includes the city of St. Louis and 
Franklin, Jefferson, St. Charles and St. 
Louis counties (see pages 8-9), as well 
as Madison, Monroe and St. Clair 
counties in Illinois. Small 
nonattainment areas for lead exist 
near lead smelters in Jefferson and 
Iron counties (see pages 8-9). 



Air Quality Trends 

The department monitors air 
concentrations of the six criteria 
pollutants at selected locations 
throughout the state. Missouri is 
also monitoring attainment of the 
air quality standards in most areas 
of the state. 

The graphs at the left are 
representative of general trends of 
ambient air data from four pollutants 
including carbon monoxide, nitrogen 
dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM10. 
The overall trend as shown by the 
graph below is improved air quality. 



Emission Trends 

The graphs below and on page 11 show the total emissions of the criteria and 
hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) that Missouri facilities reported for the years 
1992 to 1997. As shown in Table 1, Missouri facilities continued to reduce 
emissions of certain pollutants into the air. 



Annual Reported 
Emissions 

Total Emissions 




200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000 
Tons Per Year 



91 92 93 



95 96 97 98 
Years 



-10- 



Sox 



NOx 




200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 
Tons Per Year 




50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 
Tons Per Year 



voc 



CO 




20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 
Tons Per Year 



93 
94 

CO 

<o 95 
96 



97 



T 


J 




1 


1 





20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 
Tons Per Year 



Pb 



HAPS 




100 200 300 400 500 600 
Tons Per Year 



93 
94 

CO 

co 95 
96 



97 



















1 













2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 

Tons Per Year 



PM10 




10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 
Tons Per Year 



- 11 - 




zone in misso 



Naturally occurring ozone in 
the upper atmosphere 
protects the earth from the 
sun's harmful rays. But ground-level 
ozone is an irritant that damages lung 
tissue and aggravates respiratory 
disease. The pollutant is formed 
when heat and sunlight mix with 
volatile organic compounds (VOC) 
and nitrogen emissions in the lower 
atmosphere. People show various 
respiratory symptoms upon exposure 
to ozone. Healthy young adults may 
experience respiratory problems at 
ozone levels as low as .08 parts-per- 
million (ppm). Persons most 
susceptible to ozone include children, 
the elderly, persons with pre-existing 
respiratory problems and persons 
exercising outdoors. 

Number of Ozone Site 
Exceed ances Reported 

Approximately four million of 
Missouri's five million residents live 



in St. Louis and Kansas City where 
the likelihood of ozone formation is 
greatest. The National Ambient Air 
Quality Standard of .12 ppm is 
typically exceeded on hot, sunny 
summer days. The number of days 
the standard is exceeded in a given 
year generally reflects both weather 
conditions and the chemicals in the 
area's air. 

One monitoring site in the St. Louis 
nonattainment area violated the one- 
hour standard at the end of 1998. 
Kansas City reported no violations of 
the one-hour standard. Eight St. 
Louis sites violated the eight-hour 
standard for the three-year period of 
1996 through 1998. Three Kansas 
City sites violated the eight-hour 
standard. Determination of 
compliance with the new eight-hour 
ozone standard will be based on the 
period of 1997 through 1999. 




- 12 - 



Ozone in St. Lo 




nder the Clean Air Act, EPA has designated many areas in the country as nonattainment for at least one criteria 
pollutant. Areas in noncompliance with the ozone standard are classified marginal, moderate, serious, severe or 
extreme in their levels of nonattainment. The St. Louis ozone nonattainment area is one of 23 areas nationwide 



currently classified as a "moderate" nonattainment area. 

The St. Louis moderate nonattainment area includes the city of St. Louis and the counties of St. Charles, St. Louis, 
Jefferson and Franklin. The Illinois side includes Madison, Monroe and St. Clair counties. The map below shows the sites 
for air monitors in the nonattainment area. 



St. Louis Ozone Nonattainment Area Monitoring Sites 




Site Number Site Name Site Number Site Name 



Missouri Illinois 

01 Arnold Tenbrook, Arnold 12 409 Main St., Alton 

02 West Alton 13 200 W. Division, Maryville 

03 Orchard Farm 14 Poag Road, Edwardsville 

04 4580 S. Lindberghand Gravois, Affton 15 54 N. Walcott, Wood River 

05 305 Weidman Rd., Queeny Park 16 1 3th and Tudor, E. St. Louis 

06 55 Hunter Ave., Clayton 

07 3400 Pershall Rd., Ferguson 

08 1 0267 St. Charles, St. Ann 

09 8227 S. Broadway, St. Louis 

10 11 22 Clark, St. Louis 

1 1 Newstead and Cote Brilliante 



- 13 - 



Number of Days with 
Excessive Ozone 

St. Louis exceeded the ozone 
standard each summer in 1996, 1997 
and 1998. The number of days with 
ozone exceedances is in the 
monitoring data for Missouri and 
Illinois below. The St. Louis ozone 



nonattainment area reported 12 
exceedances of the one-hour standard 
during the 1998 ozone season (April 1 
through October 31). Eleven of the 
exceedances occurred in Missouri. 
One exceedance occurred in Illinois, 
at the East St. Louis site. 



Number of Days with Excessive Ozone 

St. Louis Ozone Nonattainment Area 




Monitoring Site 
Missouri 

Arnold Tenbrook, Arnold 
General Electric, West Alton 
2165 Hwy V, Orchard Farm 
4580 S. Lindberg and Gravois, Affton 
305 Weidman Rd., Queeny Park 
55 Hunter Ave., Clayton 
3400 Pershall Rd., Ferguson 
10267 St. Charles Rock Road, St. Ann 
8227 S. Broadway, St. Louis 
1122 Clark and Tucker, St. Louis 
Newstead and Cote Brilliante, St. Louis 



Illinois 



409 Main St., Alton 


1 


2 








200 W. Division, Maryville 


1 











Poag Road, Edwardsville 


3 





1 





54 N. Walcott, Wood River 


2 


1 


1 





13th and Tudor, East St. Louis 


1 








1 



Total 20 8 6 12 



- 14 - 



I 

I 



Missouri's State 
Implementation Plan (SIP) 
for St. Louis includes 
control measures and schedules for 
compliance with the Clean Air Act in 
order to attain the ozone standard. 
To reduce ambient ozone 
concentrations to safe levels, the state 
must control industrial and mobile 
sources of volatile organic 
compounds (VOCs). Major control 
measures in St. Louis include a 
vehicle emissions inspection and 
maintenance program, Stage II vapor 
recovery systems for gasoline 
refueling, emission control systems 
for existing and new industrial 
sources and some contingency 
measures in case the mandatory 
controls fail to attain the standard. 
Two control strategies leading to the 
greatest reductions in volatile organic 
compound emissions are enhanced 
vehicle inspection and maintenance 
and the use of reformulated gasoline. 

Vehicle Emissions 
Inspections 

The program for vehicle emissions 
testing and repair, or Inspection and 
Maintenance (I/M), is a key 
mechanism for control of mobile 
source emissions in the St. Louis area. 
This program makes up over 40 
percent of DNR's state 
implementation plan to bring St. 
Louis into compliance with the 
National Ambient Air Quality 
Standards (NAAQS) for ozone, or 
urban smog. 

Currently, vehicles are tested with a 
basic emissions testing program as 



part of the annual safety inspection 
conducted at local car service 
facilities every year. The plan for 
enhanced I/M includes a more 
accurate test every two years. The 
new technology measures specific 
pollutants from vehicles more 
precisely than the current system. The 
enhanced tests will be performed in 
testing stations that do not offer 
repair services. 

Legislation for the enhanced program 
was passed by the legislature in 1994, 
but funding for the program was 
removed in 1995. In 1996 DNR 
convened an advisory committee to 
seek consensus on emissions testing 
among all interested parties. 

DNR drafted a Request for Proposal 
(RFP) to implement a new enhanced 
I/M program in the St. Louis 
nonattainment area. This RFP was 
released in late 1998, for contractors 
to bid on building and operating 
testing stations. The contract calls for 
enhanced vehicle emissions testing to 
begin in April 2000. 

Low Reid Vapor Pressure 
Gasoline and 
Reformulated Gasoline 

Many VOC control measures have 
been used in the effort to reach 
attainment of the ozone standard. In 
1994, low vapor pressure gasoline 
was implemented in St. Louis. Reid 
vapor pressure (RVP) is a measure of 
the volatility of gasoline or its 
tendency to evaporate into the air. 
Lowering RVP reduces evaporative 
emissions of gasoline. Since 1994, a 
state regulation has restricted the 
RVP of gasoline sold in the St. Louis 
nonattainment from June 1 through 
September 15. 



In July 1998, Gov. Carnahan 
submitted a letter requesting that the 
U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency (EPA) require federal 
Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) for the 
Missouri portion of the St. Louis 
nonattainment area beginning June 1, 
1999. RFG is a special gasoline 
formula designed to burn cleaner 
than conventional gasoline, and to 
reduce both exhaust and evaporative 
emissions. RFG is administered and 
enforced by the EPA. 

Area Reclassification 
("Bump-Up") 

Moderate nonattainment areas were 
required to meet the National 
Ambient Air Quality Standard for 
ozone by Nov. 15, 1996. Because St. 
Louis failed to meet this goal, the area 
may be reclassified by EPA, or 
"bumped-up" in its nonattainment 
status from moderate to serious. In 
1998, the EPA did not take any action 
to bump-up the area, but did propose 
a policy that may allow St. Louis to 
obtain an attainment date extension. 
DNR committed to meet the 
requirements of EPA's policy. DNR 
must demonstrate that St. Louis is 
impacted by transported air pollution 
from upwind areas. Also, all required 
local control measures must be 
implemented in St. Louis. An 
obstacle to the attainment date 
extension is a lawsuit filed in July 
1998 by environmental groups 
against the EPA for failure to bump- 
up the St. Louis area. Should this 
bump-up occur, St. Louis would be 
obligated to meet the more stringent 
requirements of the Clean Air Act 
Amendments of 1990 for serious 
nonattainment areas. 



-15- 



Ozone in Kansas 



_l 



The Kansas City Ozone Maintenance Area includes Clay, Jackson and 
Platte counties in Missouri as well as Johnson and Wyandotte counties in 
Kansas. The Kansas City area was designated as a sub-marginal 
nonattainment area under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. In 1992, the 
Kansas City area demonstrated attainment of the standard and was 
redesignated to attainment. 



During the three-year period of 1995 through 1997, the Kansas City 
Maintenance Area experienced a violation of the ozone standard. The Kansas 
City Maintenance Area reported no violations of the ozone standard during the 
three-year period of 1996 through 1998. The table below lists the ozone 
exceedances experienced in the Kansas City Maintenance Area from 1995 
through 1998. The Kansas City area reported four exceedances of the one-hour 
standard during the 1998 ozone season. Three of the exceedances occurred in 
Missouri. One exceedance occurred in Kansas. 



Number of Days with Excessive Ozone - 

Kansas City Ozone Maintance Area 


Monitoring Site 


1995 


2996 


1997 


1998 


Missouri 


Watkins Mill State Park Road, 
Lawson 










Hwy 33 and County Hwy, 
Liberty 










49th and Winchester WOF, 
Kansas City 


2 











Richards-Gebaur AFB, 
Kansas City 














11500 N. 71 Hwy. KCI Airport 
Kansas City 


1 





1 


1 


Kansas 


Anne Avenue, 
Wyandotte County 





1 





1 


Total 


9 


1 


2 


5 



-16- 




DNR's Air Pollution Control 
Program developed an ozone 
control strategy after 
working with the Mid-America 
Regional Council (MARC), the 
Kansas Department of Health and 
Environment, Kansas City local 
agencies and industrial 
representatives. This strategy is to be 
implemented in place of the 
contingency measures presented in 
the 1992 Kansas City Ozone 
Maintenance State Implementation 
Plan. DNR presented this plan to the 
Missouri Air Conservation 
Commission in April 1997. The 
commission requested DNR to 
remove inspection and maintenance 
from this plan and replace it with a 
more expeditious control program. 
After discussions with MARC and 



other community representatives, a 
control strategy including 
Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) was 
developed. The Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission adopted 
the Maintenance Plan in February 
1998. This plan requires that DNR 
recommend that the governor request 
the EPA to include the Kansas City 
area into the federal RFG program by 
April, 2000. 

Low Reid Vapor 
Pressure Gasoline and 
Reformulated Gasoline 

The Kansas City area has experienced 
ozone problems since the late 1970s. 
Reid vapor pressure is a measure of 
the tendency of gasoline to evaporate 
into the air. Lowering gasoline's RVP 
reduces its evaporative emissions. 
From 1990 through 1997, the RVP of 
gasoline in Kansas City has been 
reduced on three occasions. The 
latest change occurred during the 
summer of 1997. The Missouri 



Department of Natural Resources 
and Kansas Department of Health 
and Environment both required that 
7.2 Reid Vapor Pressure gasoline be 
sold in the Kansas City Maintenance 
Area during the peak ozone season. 

The revised maintenance plan calls 
for reformulated gasoline to be sold 
in the Kansas City area starting in 
2000. RFG would replace low Reid 
vapor pressure gasoline as the fuel 
control strategy. DNR plans to assist 
the Kansas Department of Health and 
Environment in hosting a fuel 
summit in the Kansas City area in 
1999. This meeting will be similar to 
the 1998 fuel summit held in St. 
Louis, and will bring state and local 
government regulators together with 
industry, environmental groups and 
other interested parties to discuss fuel 
control strategies to improve Kansas 
City air quality. 



ad In Missour 



Lead Nonattainment 
Areas 

Various lead compounds are 
associated with damage to the brain 
and nervous system. Three sites in 
southeast Missouri are designated by 
EPA as nonattainment areas for 
airborne lead. A smelting facility is 
located at each site. The federal 
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 
require states to bring the air at all 
nonattainment sites into compliance 



with the lead standard. With the 
cooperation of the Doe Run 
Company, control strategies were 
developed for sites in Herculaneum, 
Buick and Glover, MO. New controls 
are being planned for the Doe Run 
Herculaneum smelter. The state will 
continue to enforce controls such as 
the enclosure and ventilation of 
processes, better air filtration and 
improvements in material handling. 



Lead Nonattainment Areas 



St. Charles 



7J> 

O St. Louis City 





Crawford 






Madison 







Nonattainment Area 

1 City of Herculaneum 

2 Dent Township 

3 Liberty/Arcadia Township 



Primary Lead Emitter 

Doe Run, Herculaneum 
Doe Run, Buick 
Doe Run, Glover 



-18- 



Average Quarterly Concentrations of Lead in 
Ambient Air near Lead Smelters in Missouri 

Since Missouri is the chief lead-mining district in the nation, with several smelters, the department conducts ambient 
monitoring for lead. Developed by EPA, the health standard for lead defines the maximum safe level for human exposure 
to this otherwise useful metal. The National Ambient Air Quality Standard for lead is 1.5 micrograms per cubic meter, 
averaged from all the monitor filters in one-quarter of the year. Individual filters may be much higher than the standard. 



Doe Run Buick Smelter - #1 Site 



ASARCO Smelter - Dunn Residence 




1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 




1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 



MstQtr. □ ■3rdQtr. n4thQtr. 



Schuylkill Smelter - North Site 




Doe Run Herculaneum Smelter - High School 

2.5 



Site 



1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 




1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 



Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national AIRS database. 



-19- 



About The Air Pollution Control Program 



The mission of DNR's Air 
Pollution Control Program is 
"to maintain purity of the air 
resources of the state to protect the 
health, general welfare and physical 
property of the people, maximum 
employment and the full industrial 
development of the state." The 
program serves the public with 
technology, planning, enforcement, 
permitting, financial and information 
services to achieve this mission. 

Technical Support 

The staff analyzes the quality of 
Missouri air using chemistry, 
meteorology, mathematics and 
computer programming. Staff 
members research the sources and 
effects of air pollution, collecting and 
maintaining an annual inventory of 
sources that emit air pollution. In 
conjunction with the DNR's 
Environmental Services Program and 
four local agencies, the staff designs 
and coordinates an air-monitoring 
network and analyzes monitoring 
data. The network provides air 
quality data from more than 40 
locations around the state. Using the 
monitoring data and other data on 
source emissions and the weather, the 
staff runs computer models of the 
atmosphere to predict air quality. 

Planning 

The program develops rules designed 
to protect Missouri's air quality while 
encouraging economic development. 
Public participation is a vital part of 
the cooperative process of developing 
guidelines and regulations. Staff 
work with businesses, federal, state 
and local government agencies, 
environmental groups and the public 
in a number of ways including 



exchanging ideas and information on 
clean air issues with advisory groups, 
workgroups and in workshops. 

The program works closely with the 
U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency as part of the national effort 
to improve air quality through the 
Clean Air Act. Staff members 
research and analyze complex 
environmental issues to develop air 
pollution control strategies that will 
ensure Missouri's progress in 
achieving and maintaining air quality 
improvements. These air pollution 
control strategies are included in state 
implementation plans to control 
specific pollutants. The Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission (MACC) 
(see p. 24) approves the state 
implementation plans and rule 
actions after they have gone through 
a public hearing process. Once rules 
are adopted by MACC, they become 
effective through publication in the 
Missouri State Code. State 
implementation plans and associated 
rules adopted by the MACC are 
submitted to EPA for inclusion in the 
federally approved state plan. 

Permits 

Engineers review construction permit 
applications of new and modified 
emission sources to ensure that 
facilities minimize the release of air 
contaminants and will meet all the 
requirements of the law and 
regulations. Operating permit 
applications, similar to business 
licenses, are also received and 
reviewed. Operating permits identify 
all the air pollution control 
requirements of a source of air 
pollution. This makes it clear to 
sources and citizens what is expected. 



-20- 



Enforcement 

The program responds to complaints 
about air quality and helps businesses 
comply with various federal, state 
and local rules. The staff conduct 
routine site inspections and oversee 
the testing of smoke stacks, asbestos 
removal, gasoline vapor recovery 
equipment and other sources of air 
pollution through regional offices. 
When a source violates an air quality 
requirement, staff work with the 
facility to correct the problem and 
may take additional action, including 
the assessment of penalties necessary 
to obtain compliance. 

Administration 

The staff provide budgeting, 
procurement, public information and 
personnel services. Staff also provide 
liaisons for the Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission, the 
Environmental Protection Agency, the 



Missouri Department of Health, local 
air agencies in Kansas City, St. Louis, 
St. Louis County and Springfield, the 
American Lung Association and the 
news media. 

Revenues 

The Air Pollution Control Program 
receives funds from three sources: 
general tax revenue approved by the 
Missouri General Assembly, federal 
funds from EPA and fees collected by 
the program. Fee revenues come 
from several sources. The program 
collects four types of fees. Since 1984, 
the state has collected a fee to test the 
emissions of 1.2 million motor 
vehicles in the city of St. Louis and in 
Jefferson, St. Charles and St. Louis 
counties. Since 1993, the program has 
collected an emission fee from air 
contaminant sources under the 
Missouri Air Conservation Law. Since 
1989, the program has collected fees 



to ensure the safe removal of asbestos, 
a cancer-causing mineral once used to 
insulate buildings. Funds received by 
the Air Pollution Control Program are 
shown in the table and charts below. 

Local Agencies 

Four governments in Missouri 
practice local control over air 
pollution: Kansas City, St. Louis, St. 
Louis County and Springfield. A city 
or county may have its own air 
agency under two conditions. The 
city must be able to enforce its rules 
and its rules must be as strict as the 
state's. Local agencies issue permits, 
maintain monitoring networks and 
may enforce asbestos-removal laws. 
The local agencies are partially 
funded by the Environmental 
Protection Agency through the 
Department of Natural Resources. 



1998 Revenue by Source 


General Revenue 


Federal 


Fees 


Total 



$721,315 



$2,217,000 



$6,982,000 



$9,920,315 




Mel Carnahan 

Governor 
State of Missouri 

1998 
Missouri Air 
Conservation 
Commission 

Michael Foresman 

Chair 

Barry Kayes 

Vice-chair 

Harriet Beard 
Andy Farmer 
Bill Thomas 
David Zimmerman 

Steve Mahfood 

Director 
Department of 
Natural Resources 

John Young 

Director 
Division of 
Environmental Quality 

Roger D. Randolph 
Director 
Air Pollution 
Control Program 



Missouri Air Conservation Commission 



Created by the Missouri General Assembly in 1965, the Missouri Air 
Conservation Commission has seven members appointed by the 
governor. The commission carries out the Missouri Air Conservation 
Law (Chapter 643, Revised Statutes of Missouri). The primary duty of the 
commission is to achieve the National Ambient Air Quality Standards set by the 
Environmental Protection Agency. When the quality of the air meets these 
standards, an area is said to be "in attainment/' If monitors detect too much of 
one pollutant, however, the area is a "nonattainment area" for that pollutant. 

Members serve four-year terms and the commission meets at least nine times 
per year. All meetings are open to the public and comments are welcome. Most 
meetings include public hearings where rule actions, variances from rules and 
other matters are heard. 

At meetings, the commission adopts, amends and rescinds rules; hears appeals 
of enforcement orders and permit conditions; initiates legal action to enforce 
rules; assigns duties to local air pollution control agencies; classifies regions as 
attainment or nonattainment areas and approves plans to meet national 
standards in nonattainment areas. 

Notices of public hearings are published in the public-notice sections of these 
newspapers: Columbia Daily Tribune, Poplar Bluff Daily American Republic, 
Springfield News-Leader, The Kansas City Star, St. Joseph News Press and St. Louis 
Post-Dispatch. They are also published in the Missouri Register. To be placed on 
a mailing list to receive notice of public hearings and meetings, you may contact 
the Air Pollution Control Program at (573) 751-4817. 

Information on public hearings and Missouri Air Conservation Commission meetings 
is also available on our home page at (www.dnr.state.mo.us/ dnr/ apcp). 




- 22 



1998 Rules Update 

The Missouri Air Conservation Commission heard testimony on 20 rule actions. The following table lists several of the 
more significant rules presented to the commission. 



Rules Regulating Air Quality Problems 


Rule 


Area 


Title 


Purpose of Rule 


10 CSR 
10-5.300 


St. Louis 


Control of 
Emissions from 
Solvent Metal 
Cleaning 


This rule amendment specifies equipment, operating 
procedures and training requirements for the 
reduction of volatile organic compound (VOC) 
emissions from solvent metal cleaning operations. 


10 CSR 
10-6.330 


Statewide 


Restriction of 
Emissions from 
Batch-Type 
Charcoal Kilns 


This new regulation establishes emission limits for 
batch-type charcoal kilns based on operational 
parameters that reflect the Best Available Control 
Technology (BACT) for this industry. 


10 CSR 
10-6.110 


Statewide 


Submission of 
Emission Data, 
Emission Fees 
and Process 
Information 


This rule amendment deals with submittal of 
emission information, emission fees and public 
availability of emission data. It provides procedures 
for collection, recording and submittal of emission 
data and process information so the state can 
calculate emissions for state air resource planning. 


10 CSR 

10-2.070, 

10-3.090, 

10-4.070, 

10-5.160 


Kansas City 
Outstate 
Springfield 
St. Louis 


Restriction of 
Emission of 
Odors 


These rule amendments remove the current odor 
emission exemption for large (Class I) animal feeding 
operations and require preparation and 
implementation of an odor control plan at each 
facility. These amendments also restrict the emission 
of odorous matter from Class I facilities. 



State Implementation Plans/Air Quality Plans 

DNR's Air Pollution Control Program submits rules to the Missouri Air Conservation Commission and writes State 
Implementation Plans (SIP), air quality plans that indicate how Missouri will achieve and maintain the federal standards 
for ozone and other pollutants. 

The State Implementation Plan is the primary method for achieving National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to 
comply with the Clean Air Act. Distinct air quality plans are developed for specific air pollutants. Whenever 
concentrations of one of these pollutants exceed federal standards a SIP is developed to bring the concentration to an 
acceptable level. SIP development includes a new inventory of emission levels, computer modeling of the effects of 
emission controls, control strategies and finally regulatory requirements or rules. 

Another type of air quality plan, called a "State Plan" also involves emission inventory, controls and rules, but addresses 
emission source types as well as specific pollutants. 



- 23 - 



The following table lists the SIPs and other state air quality plans that the 
program worked on in 1997 and 1998. 



State Implementation Plans (SIPs) 


SIP/Plan 


SIP/Plan Subject 


Conformity SIP 


St. Louis Transportation and Conformity Plan 
Kansas City Transportation and Conformity Plan 


Inspection and 
Maintenance (I/M) 
SIP 


Construction and operation of vehicle emission 
inspection stations in St. Louis ground-level 
ozone nonattainment area 


Carbon monoxide 


Carbon monoxide maintenance plan for the St. 
Louis area includes controls already 
implemented to achieve compliance with 
national standards and contingency control 
measures in the event of future violations 


Nitrogen oxide 
(NOx) SIP 


Ozone transport, new NOx rules including 
emissions trading 


Sulfur dioxide 
(S02) SIP 


St. Joseph Power and 
Light source agreement 


Lead SIPs 


Three separate SIPs for Doe Run Herculaneum, 
Buick and Glover sources 


St. Louis 15% Rate 
of Progress SIP 


Changes for reformulated gasoline (RFG) 
and enhanced vehicle inspection and 
maintenance (I/M) 


Kansas City Area 
Maintenance SIP 


Reformulated gasoline (RFG) and control 
measures for volatile organic compounds 
(VOCs) in the Kansas City maintenance area 


Regional Haze SIP 


Regional haze 


Revised NAAQS 
SIP 


National Ambient Air Quality Standards for 
particulate matter (PM10, PM 2.5) and ozone 


State Plan 
(incinerators) 


Hazardous, Medical and Infectious Waste 
Incinerators 


State Plan (landfills) 


Municipal Sanitary Landfills 



mi 



ir Quality Informati 



mm 

turn 





Missouri Department of Natural Resources 



Air Pollution Control Program (573) 751-4817 

P.O. Box 176 Jefferson City, MO 65102-0176 

Technical Assistance Program 1-800-361-4827 

General DNR Information 1-800-334-6946 

Relay Missouri (for use by the hearing impaired) 1-800-735-2966 

Jefferson City Regional Office (573) 751-2729 

Kansas City Regional Office (816) 554-4100 

Northeast Regional Office (Macon) (660) 385-2129 

St. Louis Regional Office (314) 301-7100 

Southeast Regional Office (Poplar Bluff) (573) 840-9750 

Southwest Regional Office (Springfield) (417) 891-4300 



In case of an environmental emergency: 

Missouri Department of Natural Resources 

Emergencies only 24 hours a day (573) 634-2436 

Emergency Response Office weekdays (573) 526-3315 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Region VII (913) 551-7020 

National Response Center 1-800-424-8802 

(A service of the U.S. government for reporting oil and chemical spills) 
CHEMTREC 1-800-424-9300 

(A service of the chemical industry for reporting chemical spills, leaks and 

fires) 



Other air quality organizations: 



Missouri Department of Health (573) 751-6400 

St. Louis Regional Clean Air Partnership (314) 645-5505 

Heartland Sky (Kansas City) (816)-474-4240 

American Lung Association of Eastern Missouri (314) 645-5505 

American Lung Association of Western Missouri (816) 842-5242 

Kansas City Health Department (816) 513-6314 

City of St. Louis - Division of Air Pollution Control (314) 613-7300 

St. Louis County - Department of Health (314) 615-8923 

Springfield-Greene County - Air Pollution Control Authority (417) 864-1662 



-25- 




Atr Potttitton Information 

jljLJLJLV JL VyJLiJLiU X IVylll XI^IJL AVIV A ijL JL Ivylll 


on the Internet 


There is a wealth of information about air quality issues on the Internet. You may find some of the 


following World Wide Web addresses helpful (addresses were correct at the date of this publication): 


Missouri Department of Natural Resources 


Air Pollution Control Program 


(www.dnr.state.mo.us/deq/apcp) 


Technical Assistance Program 


(www.dnr.state.mo.us/deq/tap) 


General DNR Department Information 


(www.dnr.state.mo.us) 


The complete Missouri Air Law 


(www.moga.state.mo.us/statutes/c643.htm) 


DNR - Air Quality Monitoring 


(www.dnr.state.mo.us/deq/esp) 


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 




EPA Region VII (Kansas City) 


(www.epa.gov/region07/) 


Office of Air and Radiation 


(www.epa.gov/oar/) 


Air Links - EPA Air Quality Publications 


(www.epa.gov/airlinks/) 


Other air quality organizations: 




St. Louis Regional Clean Air Partnership 


(www.cleanair-stlouis.com/) 


Heartland Sky (Kansas City) 


(www.marc.org/heartsky.htm) 


American Lung Association 


(www.lungusa.org/) 


Air and Waste Management Association 


(www.awma.org/) 


Missouri Department of Health 


(www.health.state.mo.us/) 


Daily Air Quality Forecasts: 




Kansas City (www.marc.org/airquality/airqual.htm#skycast) 


St. Louis 


(www.cleanair-stlouis.com/4cast.htm) 



-26- 



Glossary 



Attainment: The designation given to an area that meets 
all National Ambient Air Quality Standards. 

Carbon monoxide (CO): A poisonous gas that is odorless, 
colorless and tasteless. At low levels it causes impaired 
vision and manual dexterity, weakness and mental 
dullness. At high levels it may cause vomiting, fast pulse 
and breathing followed by a slow pulse and breathing, 
then collapse and unconsciousness. 

Inhalable particles (PM10 and PM2.5): Abroad class of 
particles sometimes simply referred to as "soot." One of 
the "criteria pollutants," PM10 particles are 10 microns or 
smaller in diameter. The pollutant increases the likelihood 
of chronic or acute respiratory illness. It also causes 
difficulty in breathing, aggravation of existing respiratory 
or cardiovascular illness and lung damage. In addition it 
causes decreased ability to defend against foreign 
materials. New laws have just been passed regulating 
PM2.5, an even smaller and more harmful class of fine 
particles less than 2.5 microns in diameter. Missouri is 
beginning to monitor its concentrations. 

Lead (Pb): Airborne lead appears as dust-like particles 
ranging from light gray to black. Low doses may damage 
the central nervous system of fetuses and children, causing 
seizures, mental retardation and behavioral disorders. In 
children and adults, lead causes fatigue, disturbed sleep 
and decreased fitness, and it damages the kidneys, liver 
and blood-forming organs. It is suspected of causing high 
blood pressure and heart disease. High levels damage the 
nervous system and cause seizures, comas and death. 

Missouri Air Conservation Commission: The governor 
appoints this seven-member group. The commission 
carries out the Missouri Air Conservation Law (Chapter 
643, Revised Statutes of Missouri). The primary duty of 
the commission is to help Missouri achieve the National 
Ambient Air Quality Standards set by the Environmental 
Protection Agency. 

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS): 

Standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency that limit the amount of six air pollutants allowed 
in outside air. These six are carbon monoxide, inhalable 



particles, lead, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and sulfur dioxide. 
The limits are based on what is safe for humans to breathe. 

Nitrogen dioxide (N02): A poisonous, reddish-brown to 
dark brown gas with an irritating odor. It can cause lung 
inflammation and can lower resistance to infections like 
bronchitis and pneumonia. It is suspected of causing acute 
respiratory disease in children. 

Nonattainment area: A region in which air monitors detect 
more of a pollutant than is allowed by the National 
Ambient Air Quality Standards set by the Environmental 
Protection Agency. EPA may designate a region as a 
"nonattainment area" for that pollutant. 

Ozone (03): Three atoms of oxygen; a colorless gas with a 
pleasant odor at low concentrations. The layer of ozone in 
the atmosphere protects the earth from the sun's harmful 
rays. Ground-level ozone is a summertime hazard 
produced when hydrocarbons from car exhaust and other 
fumes mix in the presence of sunlight with oxides of 
nitrogen from power plants and other sources. Ozone is 
more easily recognized in smog, a transparent summer 
haze that hangs over urban areas. The result is a gas that 
aggravates respiratory illness, makes breathing difficult 
and damages breathing tissues. Victims include people 
with lung disease, the elderly, children and adults who 
exercise outside. 

Reformulated Gasoline (RFG): A fuel blend designed to 
reduce air toxins and volatile organic compound (VOC) 
emissions by decreasing the amount of toxic compounds 
such as benzene, lowering the evaporation rate and 
increasing the amount of oxygenate blended with the fuel. 

State Implementation Plan (SIP): A plan submitted by the 
Missouri Department of Natural Resources to the 
Environmental Protection Agency for complying with 
national air quality standards. Each plan concerns one air 
pollutant for one nonattainment area. 

Sulfur Dioxide (S02): A colorless gas with a strong, 
suffocating odor. Causes irritation of the throat and lungs 
and difficulty in breathing. It also causes aggravation of 
existing respiratory or cardiovascular illness. 



- 27 -